On July 1st, 2017, the Goods and Service Tax Act was enacted. The four categories of GST that taxpayers can claim credit for are CGST, SGST, IGST, and UTGST. GST is necessary since it is the federal and state governments’ primary tax revenue source. Per the GST law, the government will levy taxes based on whether a transaction is interstate or intrastate.
The exchange of goods and services within and across the States can be summed up as interstate and intrastate transactions. Intrastate transactions include the collection of CGST and SGST, whereas Interstate transactions include only IGST.
The Central and State Governments imposed many indirect taxes during the previous tax collection regime. The States formerly collected Value Added Tax (VAT), and each State had its own set of laws and regulations. The Central Government was responsible for collecting taxes during Interstate transactions. Currently, the GST does not apply to diesel, crude oil, gasoline, natural gas, or jet fuel. Since alcohol is exempt from GST, bringing it under the tax net would require a constitutional modification.
The Goods and Services Tax significantly altered how the previous tax structure appeared. It advanced the notion of “One Nation, One Tax.” It ensured that the various tax systems were demolished and that only one was used. All indirect taxes were merged into one. It created a simple, clear distinction between taxes on essentials and amenities. It introduced the simplicity of electronic invoices and billing. Since there were no additional taxes, shipping products was made more straightforward. GST ensures tax administration by both the Central and the State governments. Transparency in the tax system is now guaranteed. It aids in the revenue growth of the nation through time.
The various types of GST ensure a streamlined system of tax collection. CGST and SGST ensure the elimination of several indirect taxes during intrastate transactions and incorporate one appropriate tax in addition to Value Added Tax. By lowering the cost of goods and services, they assist the average person in saving money. The lack of separate taxes and the consistency of agreements between the two states make business transactions easier. Since the introduction of GST, business professionals have had no trouble with tax filing, compliance, and paperwork-related activities. It is also discovered to be a straightforward and trouble-free process for filing returns, paying taxes, and collecting refunds. All corporate activities, from production to consumption, are subject to the GST. It also provides benefits for all phases of the input tax credit. As a result, the cascading effect of the tax is reduced, lowering the cost of goods.
IGST ensures that interactions with ITC chains are simple during Interstate transactions. In an interstate transaction, neither the seller nor the buyer must make an upfront tax payment under the IGST. Since the ITC was utilised to pay the tax, the exporting state is exempt from filing a return. Since the tax system now uses digital billings and invoicing, tracking transactions between interstate dealers and federal and state governments has become simpler. There will be a massive boost in conformity due to all interstate dealers being electronically registered and contacted via email. It also adheres to business and consumer transactions, not just business-to-business transactions.
Central Goods and Service Tax (or CGST) is a tax levied by the Central Government on transactions that occur within the same state (intrastate transactions). It is a tax that was enacted by the CGST Act 2017. The rate of GST depends on the type and category of goods and services being transacted.
For example, let us assume that merchant A from Maharashtra sells goods worth Rs. 10,000 plus 18% GST to person B, who is also in Maharashtra. The total amount that B has to pay for these goods amounts to Rs. 11,800/- (Rs. 10,000 + Rs. 1800 GST). This Rs. 1800/- GST component will be divided equally into two parts, CGST and SGST (State Goods and Services Tax), with each type of tax being 9% of the sale amount of Rs. 10,000, i.e., Rs. 900. The Central Government will collect the CGST component, while the State Government of Maharashtra (in this example) will collect the SGST component of the final amount.
All central taxes, including the service tax, central excise duty, and customs duty, were replaced by CGST in 2017.
The features of CGST include:
The State government imposes and collects SGST, a kind of GST, as an indirect tax on goods bought and sold within the state borders. This tax does not apply to alcohol that is meant for human consumption. The transaction value of the delivered goods or services is taxed under section 15 of the SGST Act. The trade value is the actual cost paid or owed for the defined supply of goods or services. For instance, if a manufacturer in Maharashtra wishes to sell his goods to a customer within Maharashtra, he will be eligible for both SGST and CGST; the State government will collect the SGST, and the Central government will collect the CGST.
The features of SGST are as follows:
Integrated Goods and Service Tax refers to the tax levied and collected during Interstate transactions (transactions between two states) by the State and the Central Governments. In such a scenario, IGST is charged instead of CGST and SGST, as IGST is the sum of CGST and SGST.
For instance, if a manufacturer in Rajasthan sells goods and services worth Rs. 5,000 plus 18% IGST to a buyer in Uttar Pradesh, the buyer will be eligible to pay IGST of Rs. 900 on top of the sale amount of Rs. 5,000. Thus, the total amount paid by the buyer is Rs. 5,900. The Central Government will collect the IGST amount of Rs. 900, which will then be divided between the Central Government and the State Government of Uttar Pradesh. Since the buyer is from Uttar Pradesh, and the buyer is the party that incurs the tax, only the State Government of Uttar Pradesh can receive their share of IGST. If the seller were from Uttar Pradesh and the buyer from Rajasthan, the State Government of Rajasthan would have received the State’s share of IGST.
Some of the features of IGST are:
States and Union Territories make up India’s territory, according to Schedule 1 of the Indian Constitution. According to this Schedule, there are 29 states and 7 Union Territories. There are seven union territories, with Puducherry and Delhi having a legislature each, and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, Lakshadweep, and Daman and Diu having no legislature. In Union Territories without legislatures, UTGST is collected by the Central Government; in Union Territories with legislatures, it is collected by the appropriate state government.
UTGST is an indirect tax levied and collected in conjunction with the CGST Act of 2017, where intrastate goods and services are transacted. Intrastate transactions of goods and services are when both the buying and selling processes are held within the same Union Territory. UTGST is also levied on interstate transactions of goods and services in which the buyer and seller are from different Union Territories. Every transfer of products or services into or out of a union territory will be subject to the Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST). The Central Government imposes IGST, which is made up of CGST, SGST, and UTGST.
UTGST is applicable under the following situations:
Some of the features of the Union Territory of Goods and Services Tax are as follows:
GST aims to portray a transparent tax structure that incorporates all indirect taxes into one. The different GST types simplify transacting goods and services within and across states. Both the State and the Central governments keep an eye on the various forms of GSTs, which results in an organised approach to focusing on the tax system.
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